Examples of Antitrust Behavior
Monopoly leveraging is defined as the use of monopoly power attained in one market to gain a competitive advantage in another. The definition of this term has been expanding as antitrust policy in general changes in force and complexity.
The area of law dealing with monopoly leveraging is usually applied in Section 2 of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Courts have sometimes used monopoly leveraging to describe how monopolization is attempted or pursued.
Unfair competition falls under the area of law dealing with antitrust regulations. Unfair competition generally involves deceptive business practices that cause economic hardship to an individual, a group of individuals, or another business. Areas addressed in unfair competition legislation include fair competition, honesty in advertising, and trademark protections. These cases are usually civil in nature but may sometimes result in criminal charges.
Unfair competition laws may also define the circumstances under which damages may be recovered. Both consumers and competing businesses can claim damages.
Two main areas of unfair competition laws are unfair business practices and deliberate attempts to misrepresent a product. There are federal laws and regulations to protect against unfair competition, yet unfair competition claims continue to form the core complaint in antitrust litigation disputes.
Practices that might fall under unfair competition laws include:
- Trademark infringement
- False advertising
- Selling products by using bait-and-switch techniques
- Using similar packaging or a similar name to confuse customers into thinking they are buying a different product
- Misstating ingredients or appropriate product use
- Badmouthing the quality of the competitor’s product.
Unfair and Deceptive Trade Acts and Practices
Unfair business practices occur when a business acts to breaches the general consumer trust in such businesses. They can apply to many industries, from the obvious, such as in the purchase of various products and services, to less obvious cases, such as debt collection and tenancy matters.
Usually, matters classified as unfair business practices involve fraud, misrepresentation, or an act that by its commission alone implicates the business in having leveraged terms that are excessively unfair.
Unfair business practice laws are designed to protect consumers. Statutes generally define the type of act that qualifies as an unfair business practice and state the recommended remedy. Restitution is typically the result of a successful resolution, but an injunction to cease the practice in question is another possible outcome.
If the circumstances are particularly egregious, the court may mandate punitive damages or an injunction to cease operations altogether. Many jurisdictions require that anyone filing a claim for unfair business practices suffer some form of tangible financial damage.
Deceptive Trade Practices is a broad term encompassing unfair and injurious consumer practices. These may include false or deceptive advertising or other practices meant to mislead consumers to that consumer’s detriment. Deceptive trade practices are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Still, every state has consumer protection statutes that allow state attorneys, together with consumers, to file lawsuits over unfair consumer practices.
Bait and Switch
In antitrust litigation, the term “bait and switch” is commonly used when discussing a deceptive trade practice in retail sales. For instance, this term is applied when a retailer promises a customer one type of product or deal in its advertising. Still, when the customer visits the shop, the advertised deal is not available.
Generally, at this point, the customer is switched to a more expensive product. The logic is that the retailer lures in the customer with the “bait” of a great deal, then takes advantage of him when he’s already in the store and more likely to settle for something different than what was promised.
A bait-and-switch operation is a form of false or misleading advertising regulated by consumer protection statutes as fraud.
While most commonly seen in the retail sales industry, bait-and-switch tactics also can be found in the following instances:
- Employers who advertise a job opening that gives a misleading impression of duties, working conditions, or compensation
- Hotels that advertise a lower rate and tacking on hidden fees upon check-in
- Telecommunication Companies who offer services at an introductory price and then escalate the price drastically after that time period
- Contractors that add on extra fees above the service estimate
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