What are surgically or clinically administered drugs?
Surgically or clinically administered drugs are medications given to a patient when he or she is receiving professional medical attention, or during a medical procedure. This may occur during a medical examination, outpatient surgical procedure, or upon admittance to a hospital or other health care facility for surgery. There are a wide variety of drugs that may be administered, based on the type of treatment or surgery a patient is undergoing. Surgically administered drugs may also be included in the type of anesthesia used during surgery.
Surgically or clinically administered drugs may be given before and after a surgical procedure, to prevent problems. Surgical drugs may include:
• Antibiotics – used to combat bacteria that may cause infection; may be given orally as a bill or liquid, or intravenously (IV).
• Antifungals – these drugs are used to fight fungal infections in the body; usually given in a pill form or by IV, but may be a powder or ointment applied topically.
• Pain relievers – one of the most common drugs administered in a health care setting is a pain medication. These may be given before and after surgery to control pain. They are available in many forms, including IV, pills, liquids, lozenges, suppository, and even as a topically applied ointment or cream.
• Anticoagulants – these are blood thinners, which help prevent blood clots following surgery.
• Diureteics – increase the rate of urination; used to help stimulate kidney function and control high blood pressure.
• Anesthesia drugs – these drugs are used in combination to relax the patient, induce unconsciousness, and paralyze the muscles of the body.
• Sedatives – usually barbiturates or benzodiazepine; used to calm a patient prior to surgery, usually with anesthesia drugs.
• Antacids – to calm the stomach, reduce stomach acid and nausea.
• Mouth care – rinsing solution to help kill bacteria and prevent infection; usually used after a patient has been on a ventilator or has had mouth / dental surgery.
Other substances that may be administered in a surgical setting, but which aren’t necessarily classified as drugs include IV fluids, usually to help rehydrate a patient; and electrolytes, which help regulate heartbeat.
What are risks associated with surgically administered drugs?
As in the case of most other drugs, surgically administered drugs carry some risk of adverse side effects. These may include abnormal heart rhythm, liver or kidney failure, uncontrolled bleeding, stroke and even death. Patients also may be at risk for infections after surgery, which can result in muscle and tissue damage, infected incisions and blood infections.
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