Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were introduced in the late 1980s for the treatment of acid-related disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal reflux disorders, and are available both as prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Beasley Allen is currently investigating PPI-induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis (AIN) cases, which is a condition where the spaces between the tubules of the kidney cells become inflamed.
Case reports have linked PPI use to AIN as early as 1992, and observational studies in 2014 and 2015 provided further evidence of the link between PPIs and AIN. The injury appears to me more profound in individuals over 60. While individuals who suffer from AIN can recover, most will suffer from some level of permanent kidney function loss. In rare cases individuals suffering from PPI induced AIN will require kidney transplant.
Use of PPIs has increased in the U.S. from 3.4 percent to 7.0 percent among men and from 4.8 percent to 8.5 percent among women from 1999-2000 to 2011-2013, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 14.9 million patients received 157 million prescriptions for PPIs in 2012.